Table 1

Common Military Stressors

Military StressDescription
High Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO)28,29Excessive work
Short notice changes to plans
Continuous operations
Day-to-day demands
Long-range work requirements
Perception of work overload
Separation from family
Decreased communication with family
Unpredictability28,3037Rapid mobilization
Phone or internet unavailability
Stand-by status
Reception by the public
Deployments10,3841Combat missions
Humanitarian missions
Peace-keeping missions
Austere environments
Servicemember casualties
Human remains
Death of enemy combatants
Civilian noncombatant casualties
Life threatening experiences
Inability to anticipate requirements
Time management pressure
Sleep deprivation
Inexperience with roles and responsibilities
Continuous stress
Physical exertion
Toxic Leadership47Inexperienced managers
Late decisions
Frenzied, micromanaged climate
Indifferent leaders
Abusive leaders
Culture of distrust