Table 2

Suicide in Jails and Prisons

Shaw et al.20Rate 133 per 100,000; 32% within first seven days; male/female ratio, 12:1; 18% age 21 or younger; 26% with violent crimes, 49% on remand; 72% with one or more psychiatric diagnoses. Drug dependence most frequent primary and secondary diagnosis.
Fazel et al.21Rate approximately five times that of the general population. Excess risk among male prisoners on rise.
Blaauw et al.22Six characteristics useful in identifying potential victims: age 40+, homelessness, history of psychiatric care, drug abuse, prior incarceration, violent offense.
Matschnig et al.23Increased suicide rates and rates on the rise. Pretrial with highest risk. Long-term sentences, single-cell use, mental illness, substance abuse, history of suicidality associated with increased risk.