Table 1

Transcription Symbols

CommaDownturn in vocal tone
Question markUpturn in vocal tone
Colon(s): “lo::ng”Prolongation of tone
PeriodCompletion of an utterance
Group of two to three periods: “he said…”Long pause
Number in parentheses: (0.5)Timed silence (in seconds)
Paired equal signs: last time= =noLatching (no pause before next speaker's utterance)
Paired brackets, e.g. [so he said it] [yeah]Conversational overlap