Table 1.

Therapeutic Modalities and Processes in the Treatment of Gender Dysphoria, as Outlined by World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH)

Therapeutic ModalitiesProcesses
Psychotherapy (individual, couple, family, group)Explore gender identity, role, and expression
Address the negative impact of gender dysphoria and stigma on mental health
Alleviate internalized transphobia
Enhance social and peer support
Improve body image
Promote resilience
Hormone therapy to feminize or masculinize the bodyDocument persistent gender dysphoria and capacity to make a full informed decision and to consent for treatment
Discuss the risk/benefit ratio of hormone therapy
Minimize the development of side effects and new medical conditions (eg: venous thromboembolic disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension)
Surgery to change primary and/or secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., breasts/chest, external and/or internal genitalia, facial features, body contouring)Document that the patient has engaged in 12 continuous months of living in a gender role that is congruent with his or her gender identity, before undergoing definitive surgery
Document persistent gender dysphoria and capacity to make a fully informed decision and to consent to treatment
Discuss different surgical techniques available and the advantages/
disadvantages of each
Identify inherent risks and possible complications of the procedure, while ensuring adequate postoperative care