Table 3

States With Affirmative Duty Jurisdictions: Verdict or Summary Judgment for the Defendant Because of Statutory Immunity

State (Statute)CourtCase
California (Cal. Civ. Code § 43.92 (2007))California Court of Appeal, Second Appellate District, Division SixLey v. State of California, 8 Cal. Rptr. 3d 642 (Cal. Ct. App. 2004)
California Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District, Division OneMichael E. L. v. County of San Diego, 228 Cal. Rptr. 139 (Cal. Ct. App. 1986)
Utah (Utah Code Ann § 78-14a-102 (1998))Supreme Court of UtahHiggins v. Salt Lake County, 855 P.2d 231 (Utah 1993)
Washington (Wash. Rev. Code § 71.05.120 (1991))Washington Court of Appeals, Division OneTobis v. State, 758 P.2d 534 (Wash. Ct. App. 1988)