Table 1

Estimated Risks for Selected Side Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Men

Side EffectsDuration of DeprivationPercent Change or Hazard Ratio
Bone mineral density and fracture risk
    Bone mineral density6 months−3.5%17
12 months−5.3%15
12 months−3.3%16
12 months−4.9% and −6.8%4
    Any fracture*5 years1.45 (95% CI: 1.36–1.56)21
    Fracture resulting in hospitalization*5 years1.66 (95% CI: 1.47–1.87)21
Glucose and lipid metabolism
    Weight and body mass index6 months+0.8%17
11 months+2.4%23
    Fat body mass3 months+8.4%18
11 months+9.4%23
    Lean body mass3 months−2.8%18
11 months−2.7%23
    Muscle area11 months−3.2%23
    Total cholesterol level6 months+6.1%17
11 months+9.0%23
    High-density lipoproteins cholesterol level11 months−11.3%23
    Low-density lipoproteins cholesterol level11 months+7.3%23
    Triglyceride level6 months+8.2%17
    11 months+27%23
    Fasting insulin level3 months+64%18
    Incident diabetes4.6 years1.44 (95% CI: 1.34–1.55)32
    Incident coronary heart disease4.6 years1.16 (95% CI: 1.10–1.21)32
    Incident myocardial infarction4.6 years1.11 (95% CI: 1.01–1.21)32
    Incident sudden cardiac death4.6 years1.16 (95% CI: 1.05–1.27)32
Mood disturbances
    Depression (or other affective disorder)4.3 years1.08 (95% CI: 1.02–1.15)49
    Constitutional symptoms (e.g., fatigue, malaise, anorexia, abnormal weight gain, debility)4.3 years1.17 (95% CI: 1.13–1.22)49
  • * Among those receiving nine or more doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the first 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer.