Table 2

Characteristics Associated With Increased Risk of Violation of Protection Orders

CharacteristicStudies Reporting That the Characteristic Was Associated With Increased Risk of Violation, Listed According to the Focus/Context of the StudyStudies of the Characteristic That Did Not Find It to Be Associated With Risk of Violation
Intimate Partner ViolenceStalkingDefendant
    Less time since protection order implementation5, 15, 16, 17, 21, 2220
Victim characteristics
    Low socioeconomic status18, 24
    Biological children with defendant16, 181617
    African-American18, 24
    Substance abuse history24
Perpetrator characteristics
    Violence history/criminal history12, 16, 1715, 16
    Younger age17
    Substance abuse history121517
    Less than full-time employment12
    Mental health system contact1517
Relationship factors
    Living separately161617
    Type of abuse (stalking vs. other)2314, 23
    Shorter relationship duration18
Legal system factors
    No arrest at the time of protection order placement1816, 17
    Perceived adequacy of the protection order1616
    Nonmutual protection order (vs. mutual)18
    No-contact protection orders (vs. contact)17