Table 1

Comparison of Previous Research on Military AWOL in Different Military Samples: Experiences From Western Wars

StudyStudy PopulationFindingCases, n
Heine (1945)32U.S. Army soldiersThose with mental illness go AWOL more and have more rigid habit systems, emotional immaturity, and inability to handle problems in a less direct manner.N = 133
Guttmacher and Stewart (1945)33U.S. Army soldiersOverall social maladjustment on the part of the AWOL group with respect to their intelligence, job stability, education, emotional stability, and personal habits.N =133 (in AWOL group, with a matched control group)
Bromberg et al. (1945)34U.S. Navy recruitsEmotional disturbances and negative attitudes toward the Navy, military service, or the war itself.N =248 ( 23.3% in 1,063 Naval offenders)
Davis et al. (1945)35U.S. Army Air Force recruitsMental disorder (usually constitutional psychopathy) and mental deficiency were the main factors in 63%; military maladjustment in 37%.N =100 (AWOL prisoners)
Feldman and Maleski (1948)36U.S. Army newly recruited traineesMaladjustment was reflected in the behavior of the AWOLs both prior to and after their entrance into military service; hostility, more egocentric behaviors, less responsibility in their social relationships, various somatic complaints and functional disturbances.N =185
Clark (1948)11U.S. Army soldiers24 items of MMPI were selected to form a tentative “recidivist” scaleN =100, AWOL (55 attempted repeated AWOLs)
Clark (1953)12U.S. Army soldiers (in basic training)One abbreviated scale differentiated recidivists from non-recidivistsN =104 (74 attempted two or more times)
Zuring (1954)1Dutch Army soldiers in Indonesian colonial wars65% were found to be neurotic, 35% psychopathic, 43.5% of inferior intelligence and 29.2 % normal, according to an assessment by the colonial Army Division BoardN not mentioned in the article