Table 1

Manifest Injustice Sentencing of Minority Youth Versus Caucasian Youth

WAJRAManifest Injustice DownManifest Injustice Up or In
n = 406,846%n = 436%RRpn = 45%RRpn = 130%RRp
Caucasian277,55468.22%1900.068%% out of WA230.008%680.024%
% of in JRA2312.1%6835.8%
African American19,1664.71%1030.537%7.85<.0001% out of WA80.042%5.04.0001180.094%3.83<.0001
% of in JRA87.8%0.64.261817.5%0.49.002
Hispanic79,27019.48%760.096%1.40.0131% out of WA90.011%1.37.42300.038%1.54.047
% of in JRA911.8%0.98.953039.5%1.10.57
Multiracial30,8567.58%670.217%3.17<.0001% out of WA50.016%1.96.17140.045%1.85.04
% of in JRA57.5%0.62.311420.9%0.58.04
All minorities129,29231.77%2460.190%2.78<.0001% out of WA220.017%2.05<.0001620.048%1.96.0001
% of in JRA228.9%0.74.286225.2%0.70.02
  • Total numbers reflect the sums of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and multiracial youth, not including other minority groups (e.g., American Indian/Native Alaskan, Asian) due to low numbers.

  • RRs and p values are computed with Caucasian Youth as the reference group.

  • RR, rate ratio; WA, Washington State; JRA, Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration.