Table 1

Comparison of Characteristics Associated With Online, Contact, and Mixed Offenders

CharacteristicContact vs. Online OffendersMixed vs. Online OffendersMixed vs. Contact Offenders
Internet access variables
    AgeC > ONSDNSD
    Manual laborC > ONSD
    Formal educationC < ONSDM > C
    Racial minorityC > ONSDM < C
    Internet preoccupationC < O
Antisocial traits
    Any prior offensesC > OM > ONSD
    Prior violent offensesC > OM > ONSD
    General empathy deficitsNSDNSDM > C
    CallousnessC < ONSD
    HostilityC > ONSD
    Problems with supervisionC > O
    Low self-regulationNSDNSDNSD
    Substance abuseC > OM > O
    UnemployedC > OM > ONSD
Sexual-offending variables
    Prior sexual offensesC > OM > ONSD
    Static risk scaleNSD
    Other risk scaleNSD
    Any paraphiliaNSDM > OM > C
    Cognitive distortionsC > ONSDM > C
    Victim empathy deficitsNSD
    Emotional identification with childrenNSDNSDNSD
    Minimization of behaviorNSD
    Access to childrenC > OM > ONSD
    Has own childrenC > ONSDNSD
Relationship and sex life variables
    Never marriedNSDNSD
    Never lived with a partnerNSDNSD
    Homosexual or bisexualNSDM > OM > C
    Intimacy deficitsNSDNSDNSD
    Problems with sex lifeNSD
    Detached relationship styleC > ONSD
    Low sexual regulationC < OM > O
    Sexual preoccupationC < O
    Low-commitment sexNSDM > O
Psychological variables
    Severe mental illnessC > O
    Personality disorderNSD
    General social deficitsNSDNSDNSD
    Low self-esteemNSDNSD
    Poor coping skillsNSDNSDNSD
    Low assertivenessC < O
    Social desirabilityC > ONSD
    Impression managementNSDNSDM < C
Childhood variables
    Childhood sexual abuseC > OM > ONSD
    Childhood physical abuseC > OM > O
    Family abuse in childhoodNSDM > O
    Family disruptionC > ONSDNSD
    Conduct issues in childhoodC > OM > ONSD
    Juvenile delinquencyC > ONSD
    Acting out in childhoodC > ONSD
    Emotional difficulties in childhoodNSD
  • Note: adapted from Babchishin et al.14 Differences were considered significant if mixed-effect models comparing groups were significant at p < .05 after removing outliers.

  • —, there were not sufficient studies to make a valid comparison; C, contact offenders; O, online offenders; M, mixed offenders; NSD, no significant difference.