Table 4

Proposed Signs for Family Overreporting of Functioning in GBM (When Consistently Present)

1. Frequent justification of improvement on minor physical findings that appears to be overemphasized or does not match other treatment reports
2. Pervasive and overemphasized belief that person is special (e.g., a fighter), especially after significant documented decline
3. Overreliance on spiritual beliefs for a cure, not just comfort for circumstances
4. Unwavering focused on anecdotal reports of a cure and how the patient is similar to those reports
5. Lack of acknowledgement of the meaning of words such as “palliative” (e.g., doctor's recommendation was potentially curative not just palliative)
6. Lack of rational explanation for not applying similar past life experience to current situation (e.g., uncle's death from brain tumor does not apply)
7. Repetitive overreliance on credentials of treating doctors (e.g., stating, “We got the best physicians, therefore he will get better [or was functioning better].”)
8. Perceived extreme and consistent minimization of deficits, even after education to the contrary (e.g., stating, “He was always bad with names” in a person with aphasia)