Table 3.

Risk Factor Categories Related to Use of Restraint during Transport

Risk Factor CategoryRestraint UsedNo Restraint Used
Behaviorala819 (78.3)227 (21.7)
Historicalb173 (75.9)55 (24.1)
Legal/socialc122 (81.9)27 (18.1)
Protectived41 (9.4)397 (90.6)
  • Data are presented as n (%). Multiple risk factor rationales were identified for each transport occurrence; the total number of risk factors is therefore higher than the total sample size of 802 transports.

  • a Behavioral risk factors included danger to self, danger to others, clinical instability, impulsivity, current aggression, limitation on communication/threatening/harassment, treatment noncompliance, recent substance use/withdrawal, and recent violence/elopement ideation.

  • b Historical risk factors included any history of violence or elopement, unsuccessful temporary leave or conditional release, and unknown history.

  • c Legal/social risk factors included felony charges, pending return to corrections, protective/restraining order, high bond or incarceration exposure, and significant pending community/family events.

  • d Protective factors included significant clinical stability, treatment compliance, fear of leaving the hospital, and geriatric status or being medically compromised.