Table 1

The Stalker’s Clinical Risk Factors and Future Hazards Specific to the Stalking Situation

Risk FactorManagement Possibilities
    Attitudes toward, and beliefs about, the victim that sustain stalkingAppropriate legal interventions; CBT* and focused psychotherapies aimed at such areas as abandoning love, accepting loss, confronting misperceptions
    The conviction that the stalker is right to engage in stalkingEnhancing victim empathy; confronting false attributions using CBT
    The refusal to engage in any therapy, or conform to legally imposed restrictions on access to the victimUltimately confronting stalker with consequences (e.g. through breaching parole, referring back to court, etc.); employing motivational interviewing strategies to assist the stalker to appreciate the need for intervention
    Social incompetenceSocial skills training, therapies aimed at enhancing self-efficacy
    ParaphiliaSex offender program incorporating CBT with or without pharmacotherapy, as indicated
Future hazards
    Likely future contact with the victimEvery effort should be made to enforce a total ban on direct contact or direct communications
    Lack of a feasible set of plans for avoiding a recurrence of stalkingEnsure structured plan around avoiding provocations and using protections against stalking; CBT to assist the stalker to overcome the compulsionto stalk
    The underlying precipitants remain unresolvedFocused psychotherapy aimed at the areas identified in the formulation; social skills training for the inept; assistance abandoning the relationship; the treatment of paraphilias using CBT with or without pharmacotherapy, as indicated
    Continuing instability to obtain residence and/or employmentAssistance obtaining housing; career counseling and active employment rehabilitation as indicated and appropriate
    Continuing social isolationUse of clubs, day centers, recreational counseling, domestic pets
    Likely low level of compliance with legal restraints on contact with victimEnsure knowledge of consequences of breaches and never collude, implicitly or explicitly, with avoiding those consequences
    Likely low level of cooperation with any treatment programUse of compulsory community treatment orders either imposed by court or as part of mental health legislation
  • * CBT, cognitive behavioral therapy.