Table 2

Warning Signs in School Shooting Incidents

Predicted on the Basis of Past Studies*Occurred in Real Case ScenariosHigh-Risk Factors
Uncontrolled angerThreats of violenceRecent history of violence
History of aggressionDetailed plan, often communicated to othersPast history of violence
Threats of violenceBlames others for problemsHistory of suicidal behavior
Recent lossHistory of aggressionFamily history of violence
Symptoms of depression/hopelessnessUncontrolled angerHistory of substance abuse
Social isolation (real or perceived)Depression and/or suicidal threatsMedical condition
Feelings of being persecuted or bulliedPoor coping and social skillsUse of medication
Access to firearmsFeelings of being rejected by peersAccess to and experience with weapons
Feelings of being persecuted or bulliedRecent loss
Access to firearmsRecent humiliation
Fascination with weapons and explosivesCommunication of violent intentions
Organized for attack
Lack of a prosocial support system
Recent loss
Lack of supervision at home
  • * Extracted from References 41 and 44.

  • Extracted from Reference 14, and Reference 10, p 43.