Table 2

Jail Diversion Programs

InvestigatorsNo. of Groups, Diversion Type (Total Sample Size for All Groups)Research DesignFollow-up MonthsRearrest PrevalenceRearrest IncidenceJail Time for Index Offense
Prebooking diversion
    Gratton et al.391 PBD (55); 1 TAU (116)QED12NR0NR
    Steadman et al.403 PBD (300)Retrospective Cohort0NRNR+
Jail-based diversion
    Shafer et al.41; Lattimore et al.12 JBD (124); 2 TAU (78)QED1200NR
Court-based diversion
    Steadman et al.421 CBD (35); TAU (45)QED20NR+
    Hoff et al.371 CBD (314); 1 TAU (124)Retrospective Cohort12NRNR+
    Rowe et al.441 CBD +PS* (73); 1 CBD (41)RCT12NR0NR
    Frisman et al.457 CBD (113); 5 TAU (98)QED120NR+
    McNiel and Binder461 MHC (170); 1 TAU (8067)Retrospective cohortAt least 6+NRNR
    Trupin et al.47; Trupin and Richards482 MHC (96); 2 TAU (128)QEDAt least 900
    Moore and Hiday491 MHC (82); 1 TAU (183)Retrospective cohort120+NR
    Christy et al.511 MHC (116); 1 TAU (101)QED matched pairs1200+
    Cosden et al.52541 MHC+ACT (137); 1 TAU (98)RCT24NR0
    Neiswender551 MHC (114); 1 TAU (80)Retrospective cohort24NRNR+
Cross-model and pooled comparisons
    Broner et al.561 JBD (77); 1 CBD (35); 1 TAU (119)QED12NR0+
    Broner et al.57; Lattimore et al.13 PBD; 3 JBD; 1 CBD; 1 MHC; 8 TAU (NR)QED12NR0+
    Steadman and Naples583 PBD+1 JBD+2 CBD+1 MHC+6 TAU = (1185)QED12NR0NR
    Aos et al.263 PBD+3 JBD+2 CBD+3 MHC = (1243) 11 TAU (NR)Meta-analysis12–24NR0NR
  • +, Statistically significant difference in criminal justice outcome was reported in favor of a treatment intervention relative to control/comparison condition; 0, no statistically significant difference between treatment and comparison/control conditions; −, statistically significant difference in criminal justice outcome in favor of the control/comparison condition relative to the intervention condition; NR, not reported.

  • * PS, peer support program.

  • ACT, assertive community treatment program.