Table 2

A Universal List of Communicative Means Documented in Various Cultures and Used to Key Performance

Name of TechniqueExplanatory Examples
Special formulae signaling performanceConventional openings and closings
Special codesArchaic or esoteric language reserved for the performance ritual
Figurative languageMetaphors
Special patterns of tempo, stress, pitchExpert's manipulation of voice and technical mastery of the microphone and other electronic aids
Appeal to traditionReliance on images linked to psychiatry; appearance of being thoughtful, pensive
  • Adapted from Bauman R: Verbal art as performance (Ref. 13, p 295).