Type of Anger | ES | 95% CI | N | Heterogeneity Statistic |
---|---|---|---|---|

Overall anger^{*} | 0.76 | 0.67–0.85 | 139 | Q = 403.1, df 138, p < 0.001 |

Anger control | 0.47 | 0.38–0.57 | 39 | Q = 43.75, df 38, p = 0.2 |

Anger expression | 0.41 | 0.33–0.49 | 59 | Q = 64.54, df 58, p = 0.25 |

Anger situation | 0.75 | 0.62–0.88 | 31 | Q = 43.96, df 30, p < 0.05 |

Anger symptom | 0.75 | 0.61–0.90 | 26 | Q = 38.75, df 25, p < 0.05 |

Driving anger | 1.35 | 0.94–1.77 | 7 | Q = 9.05, df 6, p = 0.17 |

General anger | 1.09 | 0.88–1.13 | 80 | Q = 200.19, df 79, p < 0.001 |

State anger | 0.56 | 0.40–0.71 | 37 | Q = 67.29, df 36, p < 0.01 |

Trait anger | 0.64 | 0.50–0.78 | 66 | Q = 211.96, df 65, p < 0.001 |

* Based on an overall mean score of anger for each treatment effect. Overall anger represents the overall mean of anger scores for each treatment effect. The preceding anger outcomes are presented in crude analysis format for visual comparisons for descriptive purposes only as these are not independent (which explains why the total number of studies for each type of outcome exceeds 139). For all other analyses, an overall mean of anger scores for each treatment effect was calculated or sequential placement of outcomes was performed so that one outcome from each study was used in the analyses to ensure independence. ES, effect size; CI 95%, confidence interval;

*N*, number of studies included in each of these meta-analyses.