Table 1

Differences in Descriptive Characteristics of Exercised and Waived Groups

Exerciseda (n = 436)Waivedb (n = 389)FPd
Age32.70 (10.83)32.50 (10.90)
Education level11.73 (2.00)11.68 (1.91)
Arrests13.05 (28.81)10.76 (20.05)
Psychiatric hospitalizations0.55 (2.34)0.85 (2.92)
Full-scale IQc91.24 (12.48)91.46 (13.39)
Verbal IQc88.27 (12.48)88.75 (13.47)
Reading graded8.64 (3.21)9.15 (3.28)
Listening graded8.90 (2.90)9.21 (2.99)
  • Data are presented as mean (SD).

  • a Exercised = Exercised Miranda rights (i.e., did not talk to police without lawyer); the dataset does not distinguish those who formally invoked their rights from those who implicitly exercised them by declining to talk.

  • b Waived = Waived Miranda rights (i.e., talked to police without lawyer).

  • c Full-scale IQ and Verbal IQ are based on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence.

  • d Reading and Listening Grade levels are based on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (2nd edition).